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Title Patterns of Economic Development: A Comparative Study of China and North Korea
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Introduction
Although Pyongyang is promising its people that North Korea will soon emerge as a ¡§strong and prosperous nation¡¨, many observers remain skeptical. The few attempts at economic adjustments in the isolated and socialist half of the Korean peninsula have proven insufficient. The Chinese Communist Party however, developed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" and is today exchanging poverty for prosperity. This research note analyses the economic situations of pre-reform China and present day North Korea, and determines to what extent North Korean policy makers can learn from the Chinese reform process.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Alan Yang   
Related Area Government Economic Policy   
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Title Future of China¡¦s Manufacturing: The Woes & Triumphs
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Introduction
Driving China's rapid economic growth were the country's exports, valued at US$1,897 billion in 2011, a solid 26% of the country's gross domestic product ("GDP"). Between 2001 and 2011, China's GDP had recorded a compound annual growth rate ("CAGR") of 18.6%, reaching US$7,296 billion in 2011. The country's growth in exports was underpinned by the availability of a mass labour pool and low labour costs. However, in the wake of rising wages and inflation, high-profile labour incidents and disputes, many believed that this model of low-cost manufacturing would not last in China. This research note sketches the current state of affairs in China's manufacturing industry, using contract manufacturing as a focus to examine the changing dynamics in China's labour market, and elucidate the critical social, economic and political forces shaping the future of China's manufacturing industry.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Josephine Lau   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   Finance & Investments   
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Title Forum on "From Creative Industries to Creative Economy: The Role of Education"
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Introduction
This report explores the role of education in boosting Creativity and Innovation in Hong Kong for the city to retain edge against regional and global competition. References are made to national successes of Spain, Finland, and South Korea through economic and educational perspectives to highlight shortcomings of the current education system in Hong Kong and to identify areas with greatest potential for improvement. Produced in collaboration with the Hong Kong Design Centre, the paper contains an extensive research into the global creative and innovation scene to pinpoint Hong Kong's positioning, as well as a transcript of a forum of the same title participated by stakeholders representing various sectors of the community. Ultimately, Hong Kong's transformation into a creative and innovative economy begins with setting the education system on the right track.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Ricky Lai   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   
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Title From Creative Industries to Creative Economy: The Role of Education
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Introduction
This report explores the role of education in boosting Creativity and Innovation in Hong Kong for the city to retain edge against regional and global competition. References are made to national successes of Spain, Finland, and South Korea through economic and educational perspectives to highlight shortcomings of the current education system in Hong Kong and to identify areas with greatest potential for improvement. Produced in collaboration with the Hong Kong Design Centre, the paper contains an extensive research into the global creative and innovation scene to pinpoint Hong Kong's positioning, as well as a transcript of a forum of the same title participated by stakeholders representing various sectors of the community. Ultimately, Hong Kong's transformation into a creative and innovative economy begins with setting the education system on the right track.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Ricky Lai   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   
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Title Global Software Industry in 2007
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Introduction
This research note provides a snapshot of the global software industry as it undergoes a major transition in 2007. McKinsey,s annual survey shows that software,s share of the IT budget in 2007 is around 31.3%¡Xup from 29.6% in 2006¡Xand is expected to reach 36% in 2009. Internal and external funding have provided an unparalleled fertile ground for software innovation. Software development has become commoditised and customer-driven, and is evolving towards services. These service-oriented architectures allow users to focus on business logic and functions rather than the underlying IT infrastructure. New business models, like software-as-a-service, have given customers the option to pay based on their actual use of software rather than facing the high initial costs and technical complexities of buying and installing software. Also, with Web 2.0 applications, the web has become a platform for people to share and socialise. Along with offshoring and open source, all these changes are challenging the traditional licensing model of the software industry.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Minyi Huang   
Related Area Management of Information Systems   
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Title The Global Software Industry in 2006
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Introduction
Software was the most profitable segment of the IT industry. Since the end of the dotcom crash in the early 2000s, sales and profits of software had been reduced significantly. However, if one looked beyond the traditional boundary of the software industry (ie, system and application software), a different story was unfolding. In particular, a new era was emerging with the advent of Service Oriented Architecture (a new approach to software design and development), services-as-software (a new breed of software programmes) and a number of social and economic factors enabled by the internet, many in the high-tech circle were convinced that Web 2.0 had arrived. As such, the entire software industry was expected to enter a new growth cycle, leading to several key questions: what were the specific opportunities and challenges facing the industry players? What strategies (or business models) software companies had to adopt?
Author Ali Farhoomand   Samuel Tsang   
Related Area Strategy & General Management   
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Title Business Corruption in China


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Introduction
This research note provides an overview of business corruption in China, placing it in a context that takes into account various political, economic, legal and cultural elements. More specifically, it examines corporate ownership and structure in China, identifies sources of corruption, and analyses the impact of corruption on the country's social and economic stability. The note closes with a set of recommendations for countering business corruption in China.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Claudia H L Woo   
Related Area Social Enterprises & Ethics   
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Title Macau Gaming Revenues are out of Sight


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Introduction
"Macau Gaming Revenues Are Out of Sight" is a research note that focuses on myriad changes in Macau's gaming industry since gambling was first legalised in 1847. It shows how different governments in Macau and in mainland China have altered the course of the city and gaming with regard to developers and resulting revenues. It compares today's Macau with Las Vegas and examines Macau's potential growth and revenues in the future with the past evolution of its American counterpart. Given Macau's regional context vis-a-vis mainland China and the rest of Asia, it suggests that it's gaming revenues will soon overtake the annual revenues in Las Vegas, making Macau the pre-eminent gaming centre in the world.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Debra Martin   
Related Area Finance & Investments   Strategy & General Management   
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Title The Changing Face of the Indian Television Industry: 2006


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Introduction
Television in India has been around for just over four decades. For the first 17 years, transmission was restricted to black and white, and sale figures of television sets were minimal. The liberalisation of the Indian economy, however, brought with it many changes, including the entry of a number of global players in manufacturing and broadcasting. In a span of just over ten years, the broadcasting industry grew from a single public service provider to a thriving sector with over 300 channels beamed across India. Sales of televisions, though characterised by a low penetration rate, also continued to grow steadily. By 2005, India's potential as one of the world's largest viewerships was attracting the attention of international media giants. Paradoxically, infrastructure and the prevailing regulatory environment brought into question the abeyant growth of the industry. This was especially so for rural India, which is typically characterised by low levels of disposable income. Looking at the industry from broadcasting and manufacturing perspectives, this note explores the dynamics, challenges and prospects of Indian television.
Author Jim Laurie   Kavita Sethi   
Related Area Marketing   Production & Operations Management   
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Title Cyberport: Realisation of an IT Park through a Public-Private Partnership


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Introduction
As Hong Kong emerged from the Asian recession in March 1999, a landmark real estate development was announced. The US$2 billion development known as "Cyberport" was intended to create a strategic cluster of quality IT and IT-related companies that would help Hong Kong become the leading digital city within the region. To realize the project, a Public Private Partnership (PPP) agreement was signed between the government and a company led by Richard Li, son of Li Ka-Shing. This research note looks at the events leading up to the PPP agreement and evaluates the government¡¦s investment.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Jeroen van den Berg   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   Finance & Investments   
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Title The Competitiveness of the Chinese Produce Industry


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Introduction
The case examines the produce industry in China. Particular attention is given to the expansion of manufacturing, infrastructure investment and increased productivity. Concepts studied include Analysis supranational, Macro, Meso, Micro, and Firm drivers for the Chinese produce industry. The case concludes that the Chinese produce industry will improve, but will take time to reach its maximum potential.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Joy Ma   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   
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Title Post-WTO Regulation of China's Telecommunications Sector: Boom or Bust?


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Introduction
China's WTO accession promised to open up its booming mobile and fixed-line telecommunications market. Although steps have been taken in that general direction, full and true compliance is still and issue: an independent telecommunications regulator needs to be created or the Ministry of Information Industry (MII), the current regulator, must stop meddling in company affairs; legislation must allow for real foreign direct investment to take place.
Author M. Bushehri   Kasra Mottahedeh   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   
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Title China Cosmetics Industry 2005


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Introduction
With a population of 1.3 billion people and a booming economy, China's cosmetic industry is one of the most promising worldwide. This emerging market is especially attractive for foreign investors dealing with a demand slowdown in many of their existing markets. This note gives an overview of the history and current environment of the cosmetic market in China. The impact of WTO on different types of cosmetics the marketing positions used by the larger players are also highlighted.
Author Zhigang Tao   Li Dongya   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   Marketing   Strategy & General Management   
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Title Restructuring of China's Automobile Industry after Entry into WTO


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Introduction
On November 10, 2001, China finally became a member state of the World Trade Organization (WTO). For China¡¦s economy, the accession to WTO not only represented significant opportunities but also challenges particularly for the automobile industry, which received protection from tariff barriers for a long time.
Author Zhigang Tao   Li Dongya   Lu yi   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   Strategy & General Management   
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Title Healthcare Destinations in Asia


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Introduction
Healthcare tourism is emerging as a growing source of revenue in tourist destinations in Asia. The target markets are customers from developed countries with over-crowded and expensive medical services at home. This note provides a survey of how healthcare tourism is being developed in select Asian countries. Emphasis is placed on the marketing efforts employed by the various countries in positioning their services and developing this promising market segment. The respective roles of the public and private sectors are compared and contrasted.
Author Bennett Yim   Phoebe Ho   
Related Area Marketing   
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Title The New Macau Concept: From Gaming to Total Economic Development


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Introduction
In late 2004, Macau, a gaming and tourism Mecca in Asia, caught the attention of investors and casino operators around the world. From a wider perspective, the city's new casinos and resort projects are expected to bring about a significant spillover effect on the entire economy and society. This technical note presents insights into the history and development of this rapidly emerging gaming market, and analyses the economic opportunities arising from such development. Drawing on the experience of Las Vegas, this technical note also examines how Macau could create a new concept of gaming packaged in destination entertainment, and what changes are expected in its gaming industry, economic and real estate development.
Author Frederik Pretorius   Mary Ho   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   Finance & Investments   
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Title National Innovation Systems of China and the Asian Newly Industrialised Economies: A Comparative Analysis


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Introduction
The Asian Newly Industrialised Economies (ANIEs), Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong, have become masters and creators of advanced technologies despite various economic challenges since the 1980s. Fast becoming the next global economic power, China is speculated to be the next innovation powerhouse. This Note analyses and compares the current innovation strategies of China and the ANIEs, and determines the possibility of China repeating the ANIEs' success in technological innovation.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Samuel Tsang   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   
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Title Chinese Medicine in an Emerging Market


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Introduction
It was estimated in 2002 that the size of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) market in China would be around US$5 billion. A decade of Chinese regulatory reforms, Chinese pharmaceutical industry's liberalisation, changing Chinese lifestyle and demographics, and the Chinese pharmaceutical research and development facilities were factors explaining the huge TCM market potential in China. This case looks at the issues faced by multinationals wanting to enter this market.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Shirley Chan   
Related Area Strategy & General Management   
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Title China Beer Industry 2004


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Introduction
This industry note describes the landscape of China's beer industry and its competitive environment in 2004. It depicts the industry characteristics (i.e. demand, products, sales channels, segmented markets, and imports). The industry note also profiles the major local and foreign players in the market, their expansion strategies and entry modes, analyses the major industry issues, and provides insights into the future development of the industry.
Author Zhigang Tao   Li Dongya   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   Marketing   Strategy & General Management   
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Title China's Home Appliances Industry 2004


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Introduction
This industry note describes the landscape of China's home appliances industry and its competitive environment in 2004. It depicts the industry characteristics and new developments in various aspects, including technology, distribution and marketing etc. The industry note also profiles the major local and foreign players in the market, analyzes the major industry issues and provides insights into the future development of the industry.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Zhigang Tao   Leyu Yang, Thomas   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   Marketing   Strategy & General Management   
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Title Developments in China's Mobile Handset Industry


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Introduction
The market share of China's domestic handset enterprises increased dramatically in the domestic market in 2003. However, the market share has started to decrease from the beginning of 2004. What are reasons leading to the current crisis for China's domestic handset brands? What had domestic and foreign handset enterprises done before and during the crisis? What kind of role will domestic handset enterprises play in China's domestic handset market in the future, and how? This case describes the up-to-date situation in China's domestic handset market, and provides brief analyses.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Zhigang Tao   Jiangyong Lu   Li Jing   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   
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Title China's Telecommunication Industry in 2004


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Introduction
The Industry Note introduces the reform and development of China's telecommunication industry in the past ten years, which led to the current situation with six major players in the market. By discussing several factors affecting the development of the industry, such as WTO accession, legal structure and 3G technology, the Note further demonstrates that the industry is in transition from a planned monopoly to market-driven competition. As the Chinese government is hesitant to give up complete control, it will retain its strong role in the industry for a period of time.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Zhigang Tao   Jiang Ying   Liu Tian Xiang   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   
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Title Safe-Guarding the Interest of Hong Kong's Electricity Consumers


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Introduction
This research note describes the monopolistic nature of Hong Kong's power industry and evaluates the fairness of electricity prices in Hong Kong through international price comparison, general price level study as well as industry supply, demand and investment return analyses.
Author Ali Farhoomand   Iris Wang   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   
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Title Proactive Planning before Crises Happen


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Introduction
Organisations go to great lengths to devise plans for financial growth and success, but they often fail to incorporate crisis-management into strategic planning. This research note examines how to identify, analyse, and forecast crisis issues. It sets forth specific courses of action that enable an organisation to proactively resolve crisis events. Drawing on the experience of Sanyo Industry Co. Ltd., this note illustrates the importance of recognising crises in a timely fashion before they become chronic events.
Author Freddie Lee   Gilbert Wong   Mary Ho   
Related Area Strategy & General Management   
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Title The Hong Kong Property Industry in 1997


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Introduction
Hong Kong's property sector saw dramatic increases in prices in the 1990s. Shortly after taking office as the first Chief Executive of Hong Kong after the return of the territory to China, Tung Chee-hwa announced measures designed to cool speculation and increase the supply of housing stock. The case allows for a detailed discussion of the sources of profitability of Hong Kong's property industry and the potential impact of the Chief Executive's pronouncements. It also allows for a discussion of whether standard industry analysis tools developed in the West are equally applicable to industries in the East.
Author Michael J. Enright   Christine Luk   Probir Banerjee   
Related Area Economics & Business Policy   Strategy & General Management   
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